The Polish Socialist Party – Revolutionary Faction, also known as the Old Faction (Polish: Polska Partia Socjalistyczna – Frakcja Rewolucyjna, PPS–FR, or Starzy) was one of two factions into which the Polish Socialist Party split in 1906. The Revolutionary Faction's primary goal was to restore an independent Poland, which was envisioned as a representative democracy.
Its opposition was the Polish Socialist Party – the Left (also known as PPS–L or the Young Faction), which believed that Poland should be a socialist country, established through proletarian revolution, and likely a part of some larger international communist country.
With the failure of revolution in the Kingdom of Poland (1905-1907) PPS–L lost popularity, and PPS–FR regained dominance. In 1909 PPS–FR renamed itself back to Polska Partia Socjalistyczna (Polish Socialist Party); the increasingly marginal PPS–L merged with Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania in 1918 to form the Communist Party of Poland. PPS in the meantime supported militarist pro-independence activities of Combat Organization of the Polish Socialist Party and Związek Walki Czynnej.